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Poverty and welfare among the Portuguese Jews in early modern Amsterdam

Titel: Poverty and welfare among the Portuguese Jews in early modern Amsterdam
Verfasser: Levie Bernfeld, Tirtsah
Verantwortlichkeit: Tirtsah Levie Bernfeld
Erscheinungsdatum: 2012
Verlag/Hrsg.: Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, Oxford u.a.
Umfang: XVI, 590 S.graph. Darst.
Dokumenttyp: Monographie
Schlagworte: Amsterdam; Portugal; Juden; Einwanderung; Armut; Soziale Situation; Fürsorge; Geschichte 1500-1700
ISBN: 9781904113577
Datenquelle: Benelux Katalog - ULB Münster ; Originalkatalog
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Titel: Poverty and welfare among the Portuguese Jews in early modern Amsterdam Autor: Levie Bernfeld, Tirtsah Jahr: 2012 CONTENTS List of Tables xii List of Figures xiv Note on Transliteration and Orthography xv Note on Monetary Units xvii 1 Setting the Scène 1 Terminology: The Definition of Poverty 4 What Precisely Are We Trying to Establish? 5 Sources 8 2 Migration of the Poor 13 Introduction 13 Evolving Policy on Admission and Relief of the Poor 16 Where Did the Poor Come From? 20 The Journey to Amsterdam from the Iberian Peninsula 22 The Route: From Portugal, from Spain, and from France to Amsterdam 24 Funding the Journey 28 The Journey to Amsterdam from Other Regions 31 Italy 31 North Africa 33 South-eastern Europe and the Levant 34 The New World 37 Hamburg and Antwerp 38 Emigration from Amsterdam 39 Pressure on Migrants to Move On 41 Destinations and Numbers 47 Female Migration 53 The Migration Balance 58 3 Demographic Outline 61 Introduction 61 The Scope of Poor Relief 62 Financial Strength 67 Family Composition 72 Conclusion 75 4 The Organization of Welfare 77 Introduction 77 The Theory: Modern Elements in a Traditional Approach 78 Centralization versus Private Initiatives 78 Selective Poor Relief 80 Criteria for Granting Poor Relief 82 Procedures: Petitions and Lots 92 Domiciliary versus Institutional Care 94 Poor Relief in Practice: Communal and Private Provision 95 Communal Care 96 Education of Paupers 97 Care of Orphans 102 Care of Paupers in Sickness and Death 108 Distribution of Clothing 111 Loans and the Portuguese Variant of the Monte di Piëta 113 The Abodat Ahesed Society and the Workhouse for Ashkenazim 117 Shelter for Strangers 121 Other Forms of Organized Private Poor Relief 123 The Kahals Response to Private Charitable Initiatives 133 Conclusion 134 5 Financing Charity 136 The Public Sector 136 Income and Expenditure 136 Reforms to the Financial System 144 Tax Increases and their Effect 145 The Creation of a Reserve Fund 147 Cost-Cutting Measures 148 The Private Sector 152 The Contribution of Individuals to Public Poor Relief 152 Private Support for Hevrot 153 Direct Assistance to Paupers by Individuals 155 The Scope of Charitable Bequests 156 Conclusion 157 6 The Motives behind Charity 159 Charity Sustained by Piety 159 Inspiration in Action 166 The Family as the Main Object of Charity 171 The Civic Sense, Trust, and Charitable Gifts 175 Prestige 178 Social Concern and Mutual Responsibility 180 Conclusion 184 7 The Daily Life of the Poor 187 Introduction 187 Housing 189 Money and Work 192 Appeals for Help: Petitions 202 The Level of Poor Relief 207 Protest and Misbehaviour 212 Life on the Fringe 216 Networks of Crime 218 Solidarity 222 Conclusion: A Motley Crowd 223 8 Epilogue 226 Appendices 231 I Tables 231 II Figures 253 III Four Biographical Studies 257 Glossary of Terms and Names 261 Notes 269 Archives Consulted 489 Bïbliography 505 Index of Persons 547 Index of Subjects 569